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Applicative functor type class.

Allows application of a function in an Applicative context to a value in an Applicative context.



const F = applicativeOf(Option)

F.ap(F.pure(1), F.pure((x: number) => x + 1)) // Some(2)

Note that having an Applicative instance implies Functor and Apply implementations are also available, which is why Applicative is a subtype of Functor and Apply.

Implementation notes

Even though in TypeScript the Funfix library is using abstract class to express type classes, when implementing this type class it is recommended that you implement it as a mixin using "implements", instead of extending it directly with "extends". See TypeScript: Mixins for details and note that we already have applyMixins defined.

Implementation example:

import {
  HK, Applicative,
} from "funfix"

// Type alias defined for readability.
// HK is our encoding for higher-kinded types.
type BoxK<T> = HK<Box<any>, T>

class Box<T> implements HK<Box<any>, T> {
  constructor(public value: T) {}

  // Implements HK<Box<any>, A>, not really needed, but useful in order
  // to avoid type casts. Note they can and should be undefined:
  readonly _funKindF: Box<any>
  readonly _funKindA: T

class BoxApplicative implements Applicative<Box<any>> {
  pure<A>(a: A): Box<A> { return new Box(a) }

  ap<A, B>(fa: BoxK<A>, ff: BoxK<(a: A) => B>): Box<B> {
    const a = (fa as Box<A>).value
    const f = (ff as Box<(a: A) => B>).value
    return new Box(f(a))

  // Mixed-in, as these have default implementations
  map: <A, B>(fa: BoxK<A>, f: (a: A) => B) => Box<B>
  map2: <A, B, Z>(fa: BoxK<A>, fb: BoxK<B>, f: (a: A, b: B) => Z) => Box<Z>
  product: <A, B> (fa: BoxK<A>, fb: BoxK<B>) => Box<[A, B]>
  unit: () => Box<void>

// Call needed in order to implement `map`, `map2`, `product` and `unit`,
// using the default implementations defined by `Applicative`, because
// we are using `implements` instead of `extends` above and
// because in this sample we want the default implementations,
// but note that you can always provide your own
applyMixins(BoxApplicative, [Applicative])

// Registering global Applicative instance for Box, needed in order
// for the `functorOf(Box)`, `applyOf(Box)` and `applicativeOf(Box)`
// calls to work
registerTypeClassInstance(Applicative)(Box, new BoxApplicative())

We are using implements in order to support multiple inheritance and to avoid inheriting any static members. In the Flow definitions (e.g. .js.flow files) for Funfix these type classes are defined with "interface", as they are meant to be interfaces that sometimes have default implementations and not classes.


This type class is inspired by the equivalent in Haskell's standard library and the implementation is inspired by the Typelevel Cats project.

Type parameters

  • F


  • Applicative


Implemented by






map2: function

Mixed-in from Apply.map2.

Type declaration

    • <A, B, Z>(fa: HK<F, A>, fb: HK<F, B>, f: function): HK<F, Z>
    • Type parameters

      • A

      • B

      • Z


      • fa: HK<F, A>
      • fb: HK<F, B>
      • f: function
          • (a: A, b: B): Z
          • Parameters

            • a: A
            • b: B

            Returns Z

      Returns HK<F, Z>


product: function

Mixed-in from Apply.product.

Type declaration

    • <A, B>(fa: HK<F, A>, fb: HK<F, B>): HK<F, [A, B]>
    • Type parameters

      • A

      • B


      • fa: HK<F, A>
      • fb: HK<F, B>

      Returns HK<F, [A, B]>



  • ap<A, B>(fa: HK<F, A>, ff: HK<F, function>): HK<F, B>


  • map<A, B>(fa: HK<F, A>, f: function): HK<F, B>
  • Inherited from Functor.map.

    Type parameters

    • A

    • B


    • fa: HK<F, A>
    • f: function
        • (a: A): B
        • Parameters

          • a: A

          Returns B

    Returns HK<F, B>


  • pure<A>(a: A): HK<F, A>
  • Lifts a strict value A into the F<A> context.

    Type parameters

    • A


    • a: A

    Returns HK<F, A>


  • unit(): HK<F, void>
  • Shorthand for pure<void>(undefined), provided for convenience and because implementations can override the default for optimization purposes.

    Returns HK<F, void>


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